Mind Network is the First FHE Restaking Layer for AI and POS Networks

Mind Network
6 min readMay 20, 2024

The Holy Grail of Cryptography — Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE)

FHE (Fully Homomorphic Encryption) is one of the cutting-edge fields in cryptography and is also known as the Holy Grail of cryptography. Simply put, fully homomorphic encryption allows for direct computation on encrypted data without the need for decryption.

For example, when calculating 1+2, the result is easily 3, but when encrypted, Encrypt(1)+Encrypt(2) can still yield Encrypt(3) — this is the essence of FHE, where ciphertext computation equals encrypted plaintext computation, allowing for data to remain in its quantum-resistant, cyphertext state.

Unlike ZK, FHE’s application in Web3 focuses more on data security. From current applications, it is not difficult to see that ZK is more reflected in scalability. While Web3 is more familiar with ZK technologies such as ZK-Rollups, FHE is gradually unleashing its unique potential in various fields, particularly in AI.

Mind Network

Mind Network is the first FHE Restaking layer designed for AI and PoS networks. Like EigenLayer and built on top of its framework, Mind Network is an AI domain restaking solution. Through restaking and FHE consensus security solutions, it ensures token economy security and data security of decentralized AI networks.

From a team perspective, the main members of Mind Network include professors and Ph.D.s in AI, security, and cryptography from institutions like Cambridge University, Google, Microsoft, and IBM. Core members were selected as one of the twelve Ethereum Foundation Fellows globally, working with the Ethereum Foundation research team in the fields of cryptography and security. Mind’s world-first FHE+Stealth Address solution — MindSAP (research paper) — solved the problem proposed in Vitalik’s Stealth Address Open Problem, attracting significant attention in the Ethereum community and resulting in multiple papers and talks.

In 2023, Mind Network was selected by the Binance incubator and completed a $2.5 million seed round of financing participated by well-known institutions including Binance. It also received the Ethereum Foundation Fellowship Grant, was selected for the Chainlink Build Program, and became a Channel Partner signed with Chainlink.

In February 2024, Mind Network became a key partner of the well-known cryptography company, ZAMA. Recently, Mind Network has further accelerated the expansion of its ecosystem, providing AI network consensus security services for io.net, Singularity, Nimble, Myshell, AIOZ, etc., offering an FHE Bridge solution for Chainlink CCIP, and providing AI data security storage services for IPFS, Arweave, Greenfield, etc.

Next Big Thing: AI+FHE

Several key aspects in the AI domain, including training, tuning, use, and evaluation, face the same challenges in decentralization, which is namely, how to remove trust assumptions. For example:

  • When training AI models, cross-validation is needed to select the best training results.
  • When using AI services, existing services need to be ranked to determine the best one.
  • AI models also need continuous tuning and iteration, requiring independent evaluations.

These processes in centralized scenarios are based on compliance trust assumptions from large companies, endorsed by them to ensure no malpractice. However, in decentralization, without credit endorsements, how to verify the fairness and effectiveness of all participants’ collaboration is a difficulty, and this is precisely where FHE can contribute. For example:

  • When training AI models, when cross-validation is needed, anonymous voting is used to select the best training results, removing assumptions like those about OpenAI.
  • When using AI services, when ranking existing services is needed, anonymous scoring is used to determine the quality of each service, removing trust assumptions like those about an AI AppStore.
  • When AI models need continuous tuning and iteration, random sampling checks are used for credible evaluation, removing trust assumptions about evaluation agencies. FHE’s involvement can also allow AI to achieve zero trust, compensating for the trust assumptions ZK still needs for off-chain aggregation. Many more AI examples could be cited, and such zero trust can allow AI agents and multi-agents to achieve intelligent interconnection and sound governance.

Additionally, FHE’s unique encrypted computation feature can also solve two other challenges: data privacy and data ownership:

  • Who can see our data? = Data privacy
  • Who owns the data AI gives us? = Data ownership

FHE ensures data is always encrypted on the user side and exists only in encrypted form outside the user, including storage+transmission+computation.

To date, apart from FHE, data can only be encrypted during storage and transmission, but once computation is involved, the ciphertext must be decrypted into plaintext, which causes users to lose data ownership.

This characteristic is urgently needed in AI + Web3, allowing everyone to stake in a public way while consensus can be encrypted to prevent malfeasance and waste. For example:

From the perspective of Restaking, oi.net can be seen as a PoS network; nodes need to stake IO tokens to receive IO rewards from their contribution to computing power. One particular challenge in this network, as well as in other PoS networks, is that the price fluctuation of staked tokens can affect validators and network security.

Mind Network’s solution is Dual Staking and even Triple Staking. Staking supports liquidity staking tokens of BTC/ETH and blue-chip AI network tokens, diversifying risks and increasing the overall security of the network, essentially an advanced version of shared security in Restaking.

Mind Network also supports Remote Staking; for LST/LRT assets, no actual cross-chain is needed, ensuring the safety of assets.

A few weeks ago, Mind Network also just finished the Glaxe testnet tasks, with over 650,000 active wallets participating, generating 3.2 million testnet transaction data.


All in all, although Mind Network talks about FHE and AI, the keyword is actually “security,” using cryptography to solve various core security issues in Web3 that are sorely needed in order to onboard the next billion users.

  • Restaking is cryptoeconomic security;
  • Remote Staking is asset security;
  • FHE is data security;
  • AI+FHE is consensus security.

Besides AI networks, Mind Network is also expanding the applicability of its solutions by cooperating in decentralized storage, EigenLayer AVS networks, Bittensor Subnet, and cross-chain bridges demonstrating the tremendous potential of FHE.

The cryptography wave in Web3 was initiated by ZK but that community of early adopters is already turning toward FHE. And the incredible backing and support of the Ethereum Foundation and Binance as well as the strong response by the AI and PoS sectors within Web3 are positioning Mind Network to be the top FHE infrastructure provider for the industry.

About Mind Network

Mind Network is the first FHE Restaking Layer for PoS and AI Networks. Their framework operates as an FHE validation network, bringing secure computation and consensus to Bitcoin restaking, Decentralized AI, Bridges, EigenLayer AVS, Bittensor Subnet, and many critical PoS networks. Mind Network’s solution enables verifiable decentralized computation over encrypted data.

Mind Network is backed by Binance Labs, Hashkey, Big Brain, Chainlink, and received an Ethereum Foundation Grant for their FHE research on Ethereum.

For more insights and updates on Mind Network’s innovations, visit their website and socials:

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Mind Network

An FHE (Fully Homomorphic Encryption) Restaking Layer for POS and AI Networks. https://linktr.ee/mindnetwork_xyz